Foring Presses & Oil Smoke

Forging Press is a manufacturing process that shapes metal using continuously slow pressure and localized compressive forces, also known as deformation which can be achieved during any tempered forging process.

Presses are used in forging to squeeze and distort alloy materials into strong, robust parts. Press forging not only allows operators to completely deform a workpiece, but also control the internal strain by overseeing the compression rate.

Cold, warm, and hot forging are categorized based on if the metal temperature is above or below the recrystallization temperature:

  • Hot Forging - when the temperature is above the material's recrystallization temp.
  • Cold Forging - below 30% of the recrystallization temperature, usually room temperature
  • Warm Forging - below the material's recrystallization temp. but above 30% of the recrystallization temperature as measured on an absolute scale

When metals are forged, techniques such as rolling, pressing, or forming may be implemented to develop specific shapes. The friction of these techniques produces oil smoke which requires immediate filtration. If oil smoke is not properly captured at or as close to the source as possible, it will contaminant and cause health and production hazards to the surrounding work environment.

Forging Presses: Cold vs. Warm vs. Hot

Cold Forging - generally used on thin materials, cold forging utilizes impression die forging or true closed die forging with lubricant and circular dies at room temperature. The process includes squeezing a part (normally symmetrical) between two dies to achieve a desired shape. Cold forging normally improves mechanical properties, but improvements are not useful in most forging applications.

To complete a finished component, the cold forging technique includes:

  • Rolling
  • Drawing
  • Pressing
  • Spinning
  • Extruding
  • Heading

Warm Forging - takes place above hardening temperature and below scale forming temperature with warmth ranging between 800 to 1800 °F (based on alloy). Warm forging in the range of 1000 to 1330 °F is excellent for commercial potential of forging steel alloys.

In comparison to cold forging, warm forging can offer reduced press loads, improve steel flexibility, decrease tooling loads, and defeats the purpose of annealing.

Hot Forging - performed at extremely high temperatures, hot forging processes takes place at up to 2102 °F for steel, 680 to 968 °F for Al-alloys, and 1292 to 1472 °F for Cu-alloys. Hot forging is preferred for larger projects such as heavy machinery and must take place at high-heat temperatures to prevent strain hardening of metals during deformation.

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